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Science Tidbits for June 21 and 22, 2012

by Robert Bevins

Good Morning, Tokyo. I promised tidbits by morning, and it is still morning on the other side of the planet.

Whenever I teach about the cell cycle, I discuss cancer, and when I discuss cancer and the cell cycle, I talk about how some anticancer drugs work in relation to the cell cycle. While my own dissertation work focuses on using cell cycle dependent drugs and making them more effective by tricking the cell into dividing with a second drug, all before it has repaired damage caused by first, I’m always looking for recent work that hits on this topic. This press release talks about using just such a “one two punch” to attack cancer cells. The full paper can be found here, but access is subscription limited. I suppose I’ll be hitting up the University library.

I love talking about flu as an example of… well, lots of things. Mutation rates, genes, viruses, zoonotic pathogens, genetic recombination, etc. One of the things I talk about is how close we are to an H5N1 pandemic. Right now, the H5N1 strains that are being monitored don’t pass from human to human very efficiently, which is one thing that keeps it from running rampant through the population. All it takes is a few
small mutations and the virus can pick up the ability to pass from human to human, and it is only a matter of time before just such a mutant strain evolves. Hopefully, by that point in time, we will have universal influenza vaccines ready, or at least have methods approved for rapid vaccine production via cell culture. The chicken egg method is just too slow.

Do you know that the color you call blue is seen in precisely the same way as another person? A wavelength of 460 nm is a specific shade of blue. Do you see the same exact shade as another person? Does your brain interpret in precisely the same way?

We have no good way of knowing if my color blue is the same as yours, since every person has different eyes and different brains. Your brain, when you look around you, is receiving information from the surrounding world from your eyes, transferred along the occular nerves, and is decoding it. As it does this, it produces a simulation from that information. You can’t see some things that are there. You can’t see pigments that reflect in the ultraviolet range, but they are present, and many insects can see them. Illusions and mirages are excellent examples of errors in your interpretation of the world and how it is in reality.

This is especially true if you have certain genes for colorblindness. The “normal” person has three different types of cone cells in their eyes. They have trichromatic vision. These cones detect different ranges of color, and for each type of colorblindness, you lose one of those ranges. Your simulation is reduced pretty significantly for each malfunctioning cone cell type.

It turns out that there aren’t only people that have one fewer cone cell type, but some people have one extra type of cone cell, and are called tetrochromatic.

This is one of those little details that you can toss in to a lecture about vision or sex linked genes (some types of colorblindness are sex linked, and tetrochromatic vision definitely appears to be). I find that these kind of teaching tidbits can be a useful way of keeping students that are at the top of the curve right there, involved. They may already know a decent portion of the material, but if you toss in a few bits of trivia that they haven’t seen before, they pay attention for the new things that they didn’t already know about.

More fun Pollinator Week stuff from Bug Girl. Ignore the Burt’s Bees commercial part of the video, and enjoy the information about how bees are the true masters of interpretive dance, and how they are involved in pollination. Oh, did I mention that it is one of Isabella Rossellini’s wonderful videos about nature? Because it is.

Are you teaching a class about reproduction? Are you teaching a minimally mature class? Then fill them in on the oddities of animal penises (via Discovery News). The duck one is actually kind of useful if you are talking about prezygotic barriers to reproduction as a means of speciation. Ducks have penises and vaginas that can be species specific, which can prevent one species from being able to mate with another.

Ever have a student ask why you get brain freeze when you eat or drink something cold? Here is a nice video explanation.
Oh, and if you haven’t heard that Europe is working on increasing the involvement of girls in STEM (Science Technology Engineering Math) education, then you have missed out on one of the worst PR bungles ever. Why is it bad (other than being painful to watch)?

Sexist imagery decreases the performance of female students on tests in STEM subjects. Nicole (NoisyAstronomer) points out the problems in the campaign and also gives some good examples of what women doing science look like. (If you are on Google+, follow her for great astronomy news and information) Kylie Sturgess at Token Skeptic also has some great examples of women in science and a good takedown of the ad as well (Kylie’s podcast is pretty great, too).

Their examples are what get people interested in science. Normal people doing interesting things. And the great thing about this is that when you show minority groups involved in science, it increases their involvement, and doesn’t discourage people in majority groups. Their functional privilege makes such differences invisible to them. Well, except for the ones that need their privilege reinforced, and require that all discussions be about them.

Have a nice weekend. I’ll be calling people to push poll on evolution.


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